Afforestation in headwater areas and on hillslopes

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Headwaters are the source areas for rivers and streams, crucial for sustaining the structure, function, productivity and complexity of downstream ecosystems. In areas of high relief, afforestation of headwater catchments can contribute to slope stabilization and may reduce the risks associated with landslides.

Appropriate design of unsealed roads and stream crossing in forests

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Design of forest roads should be done in a way that surface water is diverted to the forest aside. Various surfaces cross drain solutions with a different level of maintenance need are available (e.g. rolling drain dip, culverts, rubber strips). They need to be combined with ditch dams for directing runoff. New forest roads should…

Good state of forests

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This measure resides in maintaining good forest health conditions through appropriate management (e.g. development of stable, stepped, unequal-aged forests, uniform shelter-wood systems and partial systems, coppice forests). The aim is to increase the soil infiltration, slowing surface runoff and reduce the risk of soil erosion by improving the forest health conditions. The management in forests…

Assessing and clearing of environmental flood damages

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The measure includes the assessment of damages to the environment, mostly caused by accidents at sources of pollution e.g. containers with hazardous materials. Procedures and criteria’s need to be defined (beforehand).

Immediate reforestation of areas damaged by natural disasters

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Larger open spaces, caused for example by timber harvesting and storms, are particularly critical areas for the development of floods. Avoiding large open areas – e.g. by promoting shelter before timber harvesting – and closing the resulting open areas as quickly as possible can noticeably reduce runoff from flood-sensitive catchment areas.